The Historical Implications Of Subhas Chandra Bose
Subhas Chandra Bose was an Indian nationalist born on January 23rd of 1897. He was a hero in India due to his defiant patriotism. His attempt to remove British rule from India during World War II with the aid of Imperial Japan and Nazi Germany left behind a troubled legacy. During the 1920’s and 1930’s he led the radical, younger wing of the Indian National Congress. In 1938 and 1939 he became the Congress President. His differences with the high command of Congress and Mahatma Gandhi led to his removal in 1939. He was arrested prior to escaping in 1940. Subhas Chandra Bose traveled to Germany in April of 1941. This led to a Free India Centre being established in Berlin in November of 1941 and Free India Radio nightly broadcasts.
A free India Legion was established comprised of the Indians the Afrika Korps had captured. Due to the changing priorities of the Germans and the Japanese victories in Southeast Asia, it was inevitable India would be invaded. Adolf Hitler arranged for a submarine to take Subhas Chandra Bose to southeast Asia in 1942. He married Emilie Schenkl and had a daughter in November of 1942. He traveled to Sumatra by submarine in May of 1943. He rebuilt the INA or Indian National Army with the support of the Japanese. Free India formed a Provisional Government in the Nicobar and Andaman Islands. The Japanese believed Subhas Chandra Bose was militarily unskilled leading to a short military effort.
The Japanese attacked India in 1944 and 1945 and were stopped by the British Indian Army. Nearly half of their forces were killed. The INA surrendered and Subhas Chandra Bose made his escape to Manchuria. He believed his future was in the Soviet Union but died from burns when his plane crashed within Taiwan. His patriotism was praised by the Indian National Congress. The British Raj charged numerous INA officers with treason but eventually dropped the charges due to the sentiment of the public.
Subhas Chandra Bose prepared for his Indian Civil Service examination in 1920. He had thirteen siblings and his family was wealthy. He received his education at the Protestant European School from 1902 until 1909 when he attended the Ravenshaw Collegiate School. He secured second place in the 1913 matriculation examination. This gained him entry to the Presidency College. He believed studies were not as important as religion. His thinking was influenced by the beginning of World War II and British behavior. He was expelled for his assault on Professor Oaten who had manhandled Indian students. He received his Philosophy B.A, at the University of Calcutta in 1918. In 1919 he left India to take the ICS exam as he had promised his father. He was fourth in the exam but would not work for a government serving the British. He returned to India in 1921 after resigning his civil service job.
Subhas Chandra Bose worked for the Swaraj newspaper and handled the Bengal Provincial Congress Committee’s publicity. He became the All India Youth Congress’s President, the Bengal State Congress’s Secretary and the Editor for the Forward newspaper. He then served the Calcutta Municipal Corporation as the CEO. He was arrested during the nationalists roundup in 1925 and imprisoned in Mandalay. After his 1927 release, he served the Congress party as the General Secretary. He was the organizer of the Indian National Congress meeting in 1928. His most memorable historic role was serving the Congress Volunteer Corps as the General Commanding Officer.
Subhas Chandra Bose was arrested for civil disobedience but in 1930 he became the Mayor of Calcutta. He accepted the nomination for Congress President in 1938.